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Hydrogen ICE for off-highway applications


A client asked Ricardo to conduct a study looking into the current and future market for hydrogen internal combustion engines (H2 ICE), primarily focused on the medium-duty off-highway sector. The client nominated a baseline engine to demonstrate what changes would be required to convert it to an H2 ICE


The Ricardo study addressed the following areas:

  • The current level of technologies and the expected trend and direction of hydrogen IC engines – particularly in the US, Europe, China and Japan markets.
  • The necessary changes needed to develop an H2 ICE from an existing off-highway product, and the associated costs.
  • The production, delivery and storage of hydrogen – including mobile refuelling and on-vehicle storage options.
  • The expected brake thermal efficiency of H2 ICEs.


Market and political forces are driving the decarbonization of the automotive and off-highway sectors.

This study provided a comprehensive review of available technologies and understanding of the fastest route to market.

Rapid acceleration in market understanding.

The client can make informed decision on further investment for next-generation technology.



Start and end dates

12/2022 - 12/2022

Ricardo Personnel Involved

Richard Osborne


North America

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